Management is an oddly fascinating subject. It's kind of dirty word these days, but when you distill out all the nonsense and get down to what it's really about, it's interesting. Managing programmers, or "knowledge workers," is, in many ways, a special case and requires special consideration. This is because you can't break a programmer's job into a series of reproducible steps. Programming is an inherently creative job, which is why it's often compared to craftsmanship.
In thinking about how to manage programmers, I tend to empathize with the programmers more than the managers. The way I see it, a programming shop's number one expense AND number one asset is its programmers. So it seems pretty clear to me that you aught to do everything you possible can to keep those programmers working well. The challenge is of course figuring out how you actually do this.
The book First, Break All the Rules, suggests that a manager's job is to discover the talents of his people and direct those talents to the business's goals. I like looking at it this way because it indicates that the manager should recognize what his people are good at, and then let them go be good at it. The trick then is to make sure the things they're being good at are also the things the business needs to be good at.
Joel Spolsky goes even further and says that a manager's "most important job is to run around the room, moving the furniture out of the way, so people can concentrate on their work." At least, he says that's how managers at Microsoft behaved. Again, there is a large focus on getting out of the way so your people can work.
Recently Fog Creek announced a series of training videos they are selling. The video series is $2000 and a little conceited if you ask me... But in the promo video, one of the Fog Creek dudes says, "Developers are assumed to know the right answer. So you don't start from a position of negotiating about whether or not you could possibly have the right answer. You assume they have the right answer and that's there job to explain to you why its the best solution, not why its the wrong solution or the right solution." In this we're seeing some of that "get out of the way" mentality but also a certain amount of built in trust.
I have my own theory on the best way a manager should behave, which is strongly influenced by these references as well as just about every word in Peopleware. I think it breaks down like this:
- Trust your people
- Value your people's time over just about everything
When I say trust, I'm not talking about blind trust. I'm not a complete idiot! But I am talking about a change in tone. A manager needs to set the goals and objectives people are working toward, and a manager needs to ensure those goals and objectives are being met correctly and effectively. But a manager should trust their people to do the work right and in the best way possible. As a manager, you can ask for proof of why what people are doing is the BEST way. But you need to be careful that you don't demand proof they are not completely wrong. There is a subtle difference here which has a huge effect on morale.
I think this is very important. Programmers want to be treated like experts. They want their opinions to matter. If you stifle that, you will end up with frustrated programmers, and frustrated programmers don't work as well. Worse, since programming is a creative activity, if you're actually stifling creativity you're ruining your product. The best way to improve morale and encourage creativity is to offer up some trust and treat people like adults.
If your people know that they are trusted, and that their ideas will be seriously considered, they're more likely to bring ideas to you. They're more likely to think outside the box. These can only be good things. If instead they feel untrusted and are afraid their ideas will always be shot down, they wont bring anything to you.
Programming can be detailed tedious work. Nothing pisses a programmer off more than the impression that the time and effort they have spent was wasted or simply unappreciated. This is why programmers hate dropping a project in the middle to work on something "new" and "higher priority" that "just came up." New higher priority things DO come up at the last minute. But if a manager just tosses it on a programmer's desk and says, "get this done first" they're not valuing the programmers time.
I firmly believe a manager's job is to push the furniture out of the way so the programmers can get their work done. But, we're not really talking about furniture. We're talking about all the complexity of a project. The inter-relations between different teams, the ever changing client demands, the relative priorities of different assignments. These are things the managers should be focused on working out so that programmers don't have to spend so much time worrying about them.
Again, much of this is just tone. When a manager is laying out the work that needs to be done and the order it needs to be done in, and who needs to do what work when... they can treat this as a power opportunity for themselves. To hand out assignments from on high with little regard for explaining the circumstances to the programmers and a simple expectation that the programmers should take it and get it done. Or they can treat this as an opportunity to indicate that the goal is to optimize the developers time so they can focus and do their best work instead of dealing with the sticky details of the real world that programmers simply don't like.
A manager has to do the same work either way. In the end, much of management really comes down to politics. And since I believe the programmers are the most important asset going for a business, I believe the politics should be oriented around keeping the programmer's morale high, avoiding frustration as much as possible, and engendering a corporate culture where the programmers feel their work is valued and important.